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The most common coupler designs are Listed\Described\Depicted below, as typically used worldwide on Historic\Modern railways. Couplers of Compatible\Like design often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names. Compromise Couplers\Wagons transition between otherwise incompatible Couplers.

Click any Image\Video below for a larger view. DeadLinks can sometimes be revived via the InternetArchive.

AARx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.AARx 0000 AARx Coupler Concept
RailCarCoupler.AARC 0000 AARC w/ 9"HiSlottedNuckle For 1893~1903 Transition From LINK+MILL Couplers
RailCarCoupler.AARD 0000 AARD w/ 9"HiSolidNuckle For 1904~1931 Locos + Wagons
RailCarCoupler.AARE 0000 AARE w/ 11"HiHeavyNuckle For 1932+Later Locos + Wagons
RailCarCoupler.AARF 0000 AARF w/ InterLockedBody For 1954+Later Passenger Locos + HazMat\Rotary Wagons
RailCarCoupler.AARH 0000 AARH w/ TightLockedBody For 1947+Later Passenger Locos + MultiUnits + Wagons
Standards By AmericanAssociatedRailways\AAR + AmericanPassengerTransitAssociation\APTA\AMTraK
AlsoKnownAs Janney\American\DropHead\Nuckle\SwingHead\MasterCarBuilder\VerticalPlane Couplers
1873+1874+1879+1882 Patents By E.Janney (Alexandria USVA), 1893 Legislated By US Congress
Wide Use In North+Central+SouthAmerica\Africa\Asia\Austrialia\India\Indonesia\Japan\MidEast...
Limited Use On FreightUnits+PassengerUnits+PassengerCoaches In Britain+NewZeaLand
All AARC\AARD\AARE\AARF\AARH Coupler SubTypes Are Compatible & Mate To Each Other
Scale 0.500\0.750 Versions Used On Amusement+Industrial+NarrowGage Railways
Compromise AARx~UICx Couplers (Drop\SwingHead) Used In Britain+Australia+NewZeaLand
Compromise AARx~RUSx Couplers Used For China~Russia Interchange
Compromise AARx~SCHx Couplers Used For Loco~Unit Rescue WorldWide
Compromise AARx~SHIx Couplers Used For Loco~Unit Rescue In Japan+Venezuela
Compromise AARx~WABx Couplers Used For Loco~Unit Rescue In NorthAmerica
SemiAuto Coupling; SemiAuto Release; AARH Couplers May Have FullAuto Pneu+Elec Connections
Maximum Ratings: Draft 650kLb 2891kN, Tonnage 36376ShortTon 33000MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft 230kLb 1067kN, Tonnage 13227ShortTon 12000MetricTon
CenterOverRail: Nominal 2f750 0m838, Loaded 2f625 0m800, NoLoad 2f875 0m876
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

ABCx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.ABCx~0000 ABCx Coupler Concept
RailCarCoupler.ABCx~0001
AlsoKnownAs AutoBuffingContact\AutoLink Couplers
1906 Patent By J.Jepson (Wolverhampton Britain)
Compatible With LINK Couplers, Simular But Incompatible With NORx Couplers
Replaced Outlawed LINK Couplers On NarrowGage Stock In Colonial Africa+Honduras+India+Pakistan
SemiAuto Coupling, SemiAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 35kLb 156kN, Tonnage 1959ShortTon 1777MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink

ALBx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.ALBx~0001
AlsoKnownAs Albert Couplers
1920s Patent By K.Albert (Krefeld Germany)
Limited Use On PassengerUnits As SemiPermanent DrawBars In Europe
Manual Coupling; Manual Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink

BSIx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.BSIx~0001
1950s Patent By BergischeStahlIndustries(Germany)
Limited Use On PassengerUnits in Germany+Britain+China
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
CenterOverRail: Nominal 3f035 0m925
InfoLink InfoLink

CBBx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.CBxx 0002RailCarCoupler.CBxx 0003
AlsoKnownAs CenterBufferBeam Couplers
Various Designs\Configurations
Limited Use On NarrowGage Stock In Africa+Europe
Manual Coupling, Manual Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink

GFAx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.GFxx 0000RailCarCoupler.GFxx 0001
Patent By G.FischerAG(Swiz)
Incompatible SubTypes Include GFANeben\GFAN, GFATram\GFAT, GFAVorort\GFAV
Simular But Incompatible With SCHx\SHIx\WABx Couplers
Limited Use On NarrowGage Stock In BeNeLux+CzechRepublic+SwitzerLand
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 225kLb 1000kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink

LINK Couplers

RailCarCoupler.LINK 0004RailCarCoupler.Link 0000RailCarCoupler.Link 0001RailCarCoupler.Link 0002RailCarCoupler.Link 0003
AlsoKnownAs Link+Pin\Cone\Mayo\Trichter\Trumpet\VanDorn Couplers
Limited Use On Historic+Industrial Stock World Wide
1831~1903 Wide Use In America+Europe+BritishColonies Then Replaced Due To Injuries
1893~1903 Compromise LINK~AARx Couplers Were SlottedNuckle Janney Couplers
Manual Coupling; Manual Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 69kLb 307kN, Tonnage 3858ShortTon 3500MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
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MILL Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Mill 0000RailCarCoupler.Mill 0001RailCarCoupler.Mill 0002RailCarCoupler.Mill 0003
AlsoKnownAs MillerHook&Platform Couplers
1863~1866 Patents By E.Miller (Brooklyn USNY)
1863~1903 Used On Passenger Wagons In NorthAmerica; Replaced By AARx Couplers
Slotted For Transition To LINK+AARx Couplers On Locos & FreightWagons
SemiAuto Coupling; SemiAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

NORx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Norw 0000RailCarCoupler.Norw 0001RailCarCoupler.Norw 0002RailCarCoupler.Norw 0003
AlsoKnownAs Norwegian\Chopper\Jones\Yoke Couplers
Simular But Incompatible With ABCx Couplers
Wide Use On NarrowGage Stock In Europe+Africa+Asia+Australia+Britain+India+NewZealand
SemiAuto Coupling; Manual Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 55kLb 245kN, Tonnage 885ShortTon 803MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink

RUSx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Russ 0000RailCarCoupler.Russ 0001RailCarCoupler.Russ 0003RailCarCoupler.Russ 0002
AlsoKnownAs RUSsian\Willison\AutoKuppler\SovietAuto Couplers
SubType RUS1\SA1 Patented 1913 By J.Willison (Derby Britain)
SubType RUS2\SA2 Developed 1930 By NationalCastingCo(USIL) For RussianRailways
SubType RUS3\SA3 Developed 1945 By RussianRailways For Heavier\Longer Trains
SubType RUS4\SA4\AK69 Developed 1969 By Knorr For Russ~Euro Interchange
SubType RUS5\SA5\CAKv\ZAKv Developed 2002 By WABCo For Russ~Euro Interchange, FullAuto
All RUS1\RUS2\RUS3\RUS4\RUS5 SubTypes Are Compatible & Mate To Each Other
Wide Use On BroadGage Lines In Russia+EastEurope+NorthEurope+MidEast
Limited Use On Industrial+Mining Stock In America+Europe
Compromise RUSx~AARx Couplers For Russ~China Interchange
Compromise RUSx~UICx RUS4\SA4\AK69 & RUS5\SA5\CAKv\ZAKv Couplers For Russ~Euro Interchange
SemiAuto Coupling; SemiAuto Release; RUS5\SA5\CAKv\ZAKv Has FullAuto Pneu+Elec Connections
Maximum Ratings: Draft 661kLb 2940kN, Tonnage 9149ShortTon 8300MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft 430kLb 1912kN, Tonnage 5952ShortTon 5400MetricTon
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SCHx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.SCHx 0000RailCarCoupler.SCHx 0001RailCarCoupler.SCHx 0002
AlsoKnownAs ScharfenbergKupplong\SchaKu\Dellner\Voith Couplers
1903 Patent By K.Scharfenberg (Kaliningrad Russia)
Includes Compatible SubTypes 10\35\55\140\330\430\5301
Simular But Incompatible With GFAx\SHIx\WABx Couplers
Global Use On Modern PassengerUnits, Limited Use On FoundryWagons For FullAutoRemoteOperation
Compromise SCHx~UICx & SCHx~AARx Couplers For Unit~Loco Rescue+Maintenance
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 338kLb 1500kN, Tonnage 1102ShortTon 1000MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
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SHIB Couplers

RailCarCoupler.SHIB 0000
1930s Patent By M.Shibata(JapanRail)
Simular But Incompatible With GFAx\SCHx\SHIN\WABx Couplers
Limited Use On Passenger Units In Japan+Venezuela
Compromise SHIx~AARx Couplers Used For Unit~Loco Rescue+Maintenance
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink

SHIN Couplers

RailCarCoupler.SHIN 0000RailCarCoupler.SHIN 0001
1964 Patent By Shinkansen(JapanRail)
Simular But Incompatible With GFAx\SCHx\SHIB\WABx Couplers
Limited Use On Express\HiSpeed PassengerUnits In Japan
Compromise SHIx~AARx Couplers For Unit~Loco Rescue+Maintenance
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

UICx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Engl 0000RailCarCoupler.Engl 0001RailCarCoupler.Engl 0002
Standards By UnionInternatChem\UIC(Europe)
AlsoKnownAs British\Buffer\English\Euro\Instanter\Screw Couplers
1830 Development\Evolution From Simple Chains By LiverpoolManchesterRailway
Wide Use In Britain+Africa+Europe+India+IreLand+MidEast+NewZeaLand
Limited Use In Asia+Australia+SouthAmerica
Historic Use In Japan Before 1925 Then Replaced By AARx Couplers
Compromise UICx~AARx Couplers AreKnownAs DropHead\SwingHead Couplers
Compromise UICx~RUSx Couplers AreKnownAs AK69\SA4 Or CAKv\SA5 Couplers
Compromise UICx~SCHx Couplers AreKnownAs Dellner Couplers
Manual Coupling; Manual Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft 303kLb 1350kN, Tonnage 4409ShortTon 4000MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft 191kLb 850kN, Tonnage 2755ShortTon 2500MetricTon
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UICx Couplers Require Left+Right Buffers With These Nominal Mounting Dimensions:

On RailGage 4f708 1m435: CenterOverRail 3f458 1m054, Center~Center 5f741 1m750 To 6f000 1m829
On RailGage 5f000 1m524: CenterOverRail 3f543 1m080, Center~Center 6f000 1m829
On RailGage 5f250 1m600: CenterOverRail 3f281 1m000, Center~Center 6f250 1m905
On RailGage 3f281 1m000: CenterOverRail 2f461 0m750, Center~Center ?

WABx Couplers

RailCarCoupler.H2Ax~Pic0RailCarCoupler.H2Ax~Pic1RailCarCoupler.H2Ax~Pic2 WABA Couplers
RailCarCoupler.H2Cx~Pic0RailCarCoupler.H2Cx~Pic1RailCarCoupler.H2Cx~Pic2 WABC Couplers
RailCarCoupler.PinC 0000RailCarCoupler.PinC 0001RailCarCoupler.PinC 0002 WABN Couplers
RailCarCoupler.Tomlinson 0000RailCarCoupler.Tomlinson 0001RailCarCoupler.Tomlinson 0002 WABT Couplers
AlsoKnownAs Westinghouse\Budd Couplers
Various Incompatible SubTypes & Sizes: WABA\WABC\WABN\WABT
Simular But Incompatible With GFAx\SCHx\SHIx Couplers
Limited Use On PassengerUnits In NorthAmerica+Australia
Compromise WABx~AARx Couplers\Cars Used For Unit~Loco Rescue+Maintenance
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

WARD Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Ward 0000RailCarCoupler.Ward 0001
1903 Patent By F.Ward (USIL)
Limited Use On 1905~1935 British LondonUnderGround+GlasgowSubway+IsleOfWight Stock
Requires Problematic SafetyChains That Drag & Often Short The 3rdRail
Replaced By WEDG Couplers On 1936+Later Transit Stock; Still Used On Legacy Maintenance Stock
SemiAuto Coupling; SemiAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

WEDG Couplers

RailCarCoupler.Wedg 0000RailCarCoupler.Wedg 0001RailCarCoupler.Wedg 0002RailCarCoupler.Wedg 0003RailCarCoupler.Wedg 0004
AlsoKnownAs Wedgelock\London Couplers
Limited Use On 1936+Later British LondonUnderground+GlasgowSubway+IsleOfWight Stock
FullAuto Coupling; FullAuto Release
Maximum Ratings: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
Typical Service: Draft ?kLb ?kN, Tonnage ?ShortTon ?MetricTon
CenterOverRail: Nominal 1f296 0m395
InfoLink

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