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RailCar Brakes of the most common type are Listed\Described\Depicted below, as used worldwide on Legacy\Modern railways. Brake types of Compatible\Like design often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names.

Click any Image\Video below for a larger view. DeadLinks can sometimes be revived via the InternetArchive.

HAND Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Hand\Manual Brakes
CarMounted HandWheels MechaniclyLinked To WheelMounted BrakeShoes
Requires BrakeMen Moving Car~Car Adjusting HandWheels Applying\Releasing Brakes
Development: 1893 SafetyApplianceAct(USxx)
Manufacturers: Amsted, Ellcon, Peacock...
Commonly Used As RunningBrake Befor 1893, Practice Phased Out Due To Accidents
Use Restricted By Operating Rules\Law To Being ParkingBrakes Only After 1933

VACx Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Vacuum\NegativePressure Brakes
Standards: BritishRailWays, IndianRailWays, SouthAfricanRailWays
Development\Patents: 1844 ?(Brit), 1860 N.Hodge(US??), 1872 J.Smith(USPA), 1874+1885 F.Eames(USNY)
Manufacturers: EamesVacuumBrake, Gresham&Craven...
Used On Most British+Colonial Stock Built 1872~1978
Used On Some American Stock Built 1874~1892
Used On IndianRailWays+SouthAfricaRailWays Stock With Mixed\Dual VACx+AIRx Brake Controls

AIRx Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Air\Westinghouse\Auto\PositivePressure Brakes
Standards: Various Agencies WorldWide
Development\Patents: 1868+1872 G.Westinghouse(USPA), 1893 SafetyApplianceAct(USxx)
1st Practical "FailSafe" System: If Train BreaksInTwo, Brakes Automaticly Apply
Manufacturers: DaKo, KnorrBremse, NewYorkAirBrake, WestinghouseAirBrake...
NorthAmerica Converted VACx To AIRx Brakes Over 10+Years Starting 1893
BritishRailWays Converted VACx To AIRx Brakes Over 30+Years Starting 1978
IndianRailWays Converted VACx To AIRx Brakes Over 30+Years Starting 1980
Used On All Modern Stock Types, Defacto WordlWide Standard RunningBrake
Enhancements: DualPipe\ElecPneu\WireLine\WireLess\ComputerControl\Blending...

DYNx Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Dynamic\Motor\Resistive\Hybrid\Regen Brakes
ElectroMotiveForce\EMF From TracMotors Sent To Resistor\Battery\PowerLine As RunningBrake
EMF Fades As Speed Drops To 0, So This Brake Alone Can NOT Fully Stop Train
Operator Rules Often Prioritize This Brake To Reduce Wear On Other Brake Systems
Manufacturers: Most Modern Locomotive Builders
Used On MainLine Diesel+Electric Locomotives After 1939 WorldWide
Modern Controls Automaticly Blend DYNx With AIRx Brakes

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