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RailCar Brakes of the most common type are Listed\Described\Depicted below, as used worldwide on Legacy\Modern railways. Brake types of Compatible\Like design often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names. Dimensions+Ratings noted below describe Nominal\Typical Components+Systems; Standards+Practice vary widely with Railway\Region\Era.

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MANx Brakes

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ALSO KNOWN AS:
> MANual\Hand Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE:
> CarMounted HandCranks MechaniclyLinked To WheelMounted BrakeShoes
> Requires BrakeMen Moving Car~Car Adjusting Cranks To Apply\Release Brakes
> Commonly Used As Running Brake Bfor 1893, Practice PhasedOut Due To Injury+Wrecks
> Restricted By OperatingRules\Law To Parking Brake Only Aftr 1933
ENHANCEMENTS:
> 1893~1898 SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
> 1993~2009 MANHandBrake Status Via ECP\LonWorks\03PinWire
MAKERS:
> Ajax
> Amsted\Faively\Ellcon
> FreightCarAmerica
> GrahamWhite
> Peacock
> WestinghouseAirBrake\West

VACx Brakes

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ALSO KNOWN AS:
> VACuum\NegativePressure\British Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE:
> ????~1844 Nasymyth+May\Brit
> ????~1860 N.Hodge\USMA
> ????~1872 J.Smith\USPA
> ????~1874 F.Eames\USNY
> 1860~1892 Limited Use in NorthAmerica, Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1875~1970 Standard In Britain, 1971~1998 Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1885~19?? Standard In Australia, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 18??~1980 Standard In India, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1895~1920 Standard In Japan, Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 18??~19?? Standard In SouthAfrica, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> If Coupler\TrainLine Breaks, VACx Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
> Strength Limited By AtmosphericPressure, Severely Weakens With Altitude
STANDARDS:
> Britain\BR
> Australia\ROA
> India\RDS
> SouthAfrica\SAR
MAKERS:
> EamesVacuumBrake
> Gresham&Craven
> D&M + Oerlikon + SAB + Faiveley

AIRx Brakes

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ALSO KNOWN AS
> AIR\PositivePressure\Westinghouse Brakes
> Lok\Strait\Direct\Independent\Inde Brakes
> Train\FailSafe\Pipe\Automatic\Auto Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE
> ????~1848 S.Lister\Brit Patent
> 1868~1914 G.Westinghouse\USPA Patents
> 1872~1905 SteamLoks With West.A\B\C\D\F\G\H\K = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1893~1898 SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
> 1904~1947 DMUs+EMUs With West.AMUE = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1906~???? SteamLoks With West.6ET = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1925~1944 Diesel+ElecLoks With West.6SL\7EL\8EL\14EL = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1945~1956 Diesel+ElecLoks With West.24RL = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1951~1997 Diesel+ElecLoks With Oerlikon\D&M\Stabeg\Koban = FD IndeBrake + FV AutoBrake
> 1948~???? DMUs+EMUs With West.SMEE = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1957~1992 Diesel+ElecLoks With Knorr\West.26L = SA26 IndeBrake + 26C AutoBrake
> Y???~???? DMUs+EMUs With Oerlikon\D&M\Stabeg\Koban.FVEL6 = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1993~???? Diesel+ElecLoks With Knorr.CCB Or West.EPIC = ElecBrake + IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> If Coupler\TrainLine Breaks, AIRA Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
ENHANCEMENTS
> TripleValve\DistributorValve
> GladHand GladHand
> DualReservoir DualReservoir
> ElecPneu\EP ElecPneu\EP ElecPneu\EP ElecPneu\EP
> ElecConPneu\ECP ElecConPneu\ECP ElecConPneu\ECP ElecConPneu\ECP ElecConPneu\ECP
> 3PinControlCable
> TwinPipe
> BrakeBlending BrakeBlending
> EOTDevice
STANDARDS
> 1893 NorthAmerica\AAR Standardized AIRx Brakes, All VACx Brakes Replaced 1898
> 1962 Britain\BR Standardized AIRx Brakes, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> 19?? China\CRC Standardized AIRx Brakes
> 1926 Euro\UIC Standardized AIRx Brakes
> 1980 Indi\RDS Standardized AIRx Brakes, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> 1920 Japan\JR Standardized AIRx Brakes, All VACx Brakes Replaced 1931
> 19?? Russia\GOSt Standardized AIRx Brakes
> 19?? Australia\ROA Standardized AIRx Brakes, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> 1910 SouthAfrica\SAR Standardized AIRx Brakes, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
MAKERS
> AlfaUnion
> Bozic
> DaKo
> Gessman
> IndiaRailAirBrake\IRAB
> Knorr\NewYorkAirBrake\NYAB
> Mitsubishi
> Oerlikon + D&M = FD IndeBrake + FV AutoBrake
> Schaltbau
> Secheron
> WestinghouseAirBrake\West
> Xian\ChinaLoco
SUBTYPES
AIRIndeBrake
> Evolved From 1868 West "NonFailSafe StraitAir" Brakes, AlsoKnownAs Independent\Loko Brakes
> Used On Loks+Tenders+DMUs+EMUs, Not On Wags
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With Much Improved Response & Reliability
AIRAutoBrake
> Evolved From 1872 West "FailSafe AIRAuto" Brakes, AlsoKnownAs Automatic\Train Brakes
> Used On Loks+Tenders+Wags+DMUs+EMUs
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With Much Improved Response & Reliability
AIRElecBrake
> Evolved From 1904 West "AMUE ElecPneu" Brakes+7WireLine, AlsoKnownAs EP\ECP Brakes
> Used On DMUs+EMUs+UnitPsgrWags+UnitFrhtWags, Not On Loks\Tenders\LegacyWags
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With Mux3WireLine & Control Distributed PowerCars\Loks
AIRTailBrake ~ Info Info Info Info Info Info Info Info
> Evolved To Replace Caboose+Conductor+BrakeMan In NorthAmerica, AlsoKnownAs FRED & WILMA
> With EndOfTrainDevice\EOTD On LastCars TailEnd To Monitor+Transceive Distance+Speed+Pressure
> With HeadOfTrainDevice\HOTD In LeadCab To Transcieve LastCar Pressure Per AutoBrake Command

EMFx Brakes

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ALSO KNOWN AS
> ElecMotivForce\Dynamic\Hybrid\Regen\Rheostat\Resistor Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE
> 1939+LATR First Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks
> Typical On Modern DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs
> ElecMotivForce Generated By Coasting TrakMotors Switched To Resistor\Battery\3RLE\OHLE
> ElecMotivForce Fades As Speed Drops To Zero, So EMFx Brakes Alone WONT Fully Stop Train
> If EMFx Brakes Fail, AIRx Brakes Are Used
ENHANCEMENTS
> Blending
> Brake Controls Reduce Wear + Improve Handling
MAKERS
> ABB
> AlfaUnion
> ATS
> DaulatRam
> DaytonPhoenix
> Filnor
> Mosebach
> NRE
> Ohmic
SUBTYPES
EMFDynamicBrake
> Converts Braking Force To Dissipated Heat\Power Via Resistors+Blowers
> Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling
EMFHybridBrake
> Converts Braking Force To Auxi\Psgr System Power By Charging Battery
> Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling+EnergyEfficiency
EMFRegenBrake
> Converts Braking Force To 3RLE\OHLE Regen Power Via Shoes\Pants
> Used On ElecLoks+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling+EnergyEfficiency