RailCar Brakes of the most common type are Listed\Described\Depicted below, as used worldwide on Legacy\Modern railways. Brake types of Compatible\Like design often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names.

Click any Image\Video below for a larger view. DeadLinks can sometimes be revived via the InternetArchive.

Hand Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Hand\Manual Brakes
Patents\Development: 1893 SafetyApplianceAct(USDC)
Manufacturers: Amsted, Ellcon, Peacock...
CarMounted HandWheels MechaniclyLinked To WheelMounted BrakeShoes
Requires BrakeMen Moving Car~Car Adjusting HandWheels Applying\Releasing Brakes
Commonly Used As RunningBrake Befor 1893, Practice Phased Out Due To Injuries+Wrecks
Use Restricted By Operating Rules\Law To Being ParkingBrake Only After 1933

VacX Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Vacuum\NegativePressure Brakes
Standards: BritishRailWays, IndianRailWays, SouthAfricanRailWays
Patents\Development: 1860 N.Hodge(US??), 1872 J.Smith(USPA), 1874+1885 F.Eames(USNY)
Manufacturers: EamesVacuumBrake, Gresham&Craven...
Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes Due To Vacuums Weakness Relative To PositivePressure
Used On Most British+Colonial Stock Built 1872~1978
Used On Some American Stock Built 1874~1892
Used On IndianRailWays+SouthAfricaRailWays Stock With Mixed\Dual VacX+AirX Brake Controls

AirX Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Air\Westinghouse\Auto\PositivePressure Brakes
Standards: Various Agencies WorldWide
Patents\Development: 1868+1872 G.Westinghouse(USPA), 1893 SafetyApplianceAct(USxx)
Manufacturers: DaKo, IndiaRailAirBrake, Knorr, NewYorkAirBrake, Oerlikon, Westinghouse...
1st Practical "FailSafe" System: If Train Breaks In Two, AutoBrakes Auto Apply
NorthAmerica Converted VacX To AirX Brakes Over 10+Years Starting 1893
BritishRailWays Converted VacX To AirX Brakes Over 30+Years Starting 1978
IndianRailWays Converted VacX To AirX Brakes Over 30+Years Starting 1980
Used On All Modern Stock Types, WorldWide Defacto Standard RunningBrake
Enhancements: DualPipe\ElecPneu\TrainWire\DynaBlending\EOTDevice\ComputerControl...

DynX Brakes

AlsoKnownAs: Dynamic\Motor\Resistive\Hybrid\Regen Brakes
Patents\Development: 1939 1st Used On MainLine DieselElectric Locs
Manufacturers: All Modern Builders Of Locs+DMUs+EMUs
ElectroMotivForce\EMF From TracMotors Sent To Resistor\Battery\PowerLine As Running Brake
EMF Fades Out Before Speed Drops To 0, So This Brake Alone Can NOT Fully Stop Train
Operator Rules & Controls Typically Prioritize This Brake To Reduce Wear On Other Brakes
Modern Controls AutoBlend DynX Brakes & AirX Brakes, Smoothing Transitions & Operation
Currently Used On Diesel+Electric+Hybrid Locs+DMUs+EMUs WorldWide

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