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The RailCar Brakes Listed\Described\Depicted below are used worldwide on Legacy+Modern railways. Compatible+Like designs often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names. Dimensions+Ratings listed are of Nominal\Typical Components+Systems; Standards+Practice vary widely with Railway\Region\Era.

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MANx

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ALSO KNOWN AS:
> MANual\Hand Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE:
> Manual\HandCranks MechaniclyLinked To WheelMounted BrakeShoes
> Requires BrakeMen Moving Car~Car Adjusting Cranks To Apply\Release Brakes
> Commonly Used As Running Brake Bfor 1893, Practice PhasedOut Due To Injury+Wrecks
> Restricted By OperatingRules\Law To Parking Brake Only Aftr 1933
ENHANCEMENTS:
> 1893~1898 SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
> 1993~2009 MANHandBrake Status Via ECP\LonWorks\03PinWire
MAKERS:
> Ajax
> Amsted\Faively\Ellcon
> FreightCarAmerica
> GrahamWhite
> Peacock
> WestinghouseAirBrake\West

VACx

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ALSO KNOWN AS:
> VACuum\NegativePressure\British Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE:
> 1844~???? Nasymyth+May\Brit
> 1860~???? N.Hodge\USMA
> 1860~1892 Limited Use in NorthAmerica, Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1872~1876 J.Smith\USPA Acquired By WABCo
> 1874~1894 F.Eames\USNY Acquired By NYAB\Knorr
> 1875~1970 Standard In Britain, 1971~1998 Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1885~19?? Standard In Australia, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 18??~1980 Standard In India, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 1895~1920 Standard In Japan, Fully Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> 18??~19?? Standard In SouthAfrica, Being Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> If Coupler\TrainLine Breaks, VACx Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
> Strength Limited By AtmosphericPressure, Severely Weakens With Altitude
STANDARDS:
> Britain\BR
> Australia\ROA
> India\RDS
> SouthAfrica\SAR
MAKERS:
> EamesVacuumBrake
> Gresham&Craven
> D&M + Oerlikon + SAB + Faiveley

AIRx

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ALSO KNOWN AS
> AIR\PositivePressure\Westinghouse Brakes
> Lok\Strait\Direct\Independent=Inde Brakes
> Train\FailSafe\Pipe\Automatic=Auto Brakes
> ElectroPneumatic=EP\ElectronicControlPneumatic=ECP Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE
> ????~1848 S.Lister\Brit Patent
> 1868~1914 G.Westinghouse\USPA Patents
> 1872~1905 SteamLoks With West.A\B\C\D\F\G\H\K = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1893~1898 SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
> 1904~1947 DMUs+EMUs With West.AMUE = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1906~???? SteamLoks With West.6ET = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1925~1944 Diesel+ElecLoks With West.6SL\7EL\8EL\14EL = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1945~1956 Diesel+ElecLoks With West.24RL = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1951~1997 Diesel+ElecLoks With Oerlikon\D&M\Stabeg\Koban.FD+FV = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> 1948~???? DMUs+EMUs With West.SMEE = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1957~1992 Diesel+ElecLoks With Knorr\West.26L\SA26+26C = IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> Y???~???? DMUs+EMUs With Oerlikon\D&M\Stabeg\Koban.FVEL6 = ElecBrake + AutoBrake
> 1993~???? Diesel+ElecLoks With Knorr.CCB Or West.EPIC = ElecBrake + IndeBrake + AutoBrake
> If Coupler\TrainLine Breaks, AIRA Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
ENHANCEMENTS
> Triple\DistributorValve
> GladHand Nfo
> DualReservoir Nfo
> ElecPneu\EP Nfo Nfo Nfo
> ElecConPneu\ECP Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo
> 3PinControlCable
> TwinPipe
> BrakeBlending Nfo
> EOTDevice
STANDARDS
> Standard 2018 SNCF\France
> Standard 2016 UICx\Europe
> Standard 2013 AARx\NorthAmerica
> Standard 2006 UICx\Europe
> Standard 1962.RSSB\Britain, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> Standard 19??.CRCx\China
> Standard 1980 RDSx\India, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> Standard 1920 JRSx\Japan, All VACx Converted To AIRx 1931
> Standard 19?? GOSt\Russia
> Standard 19?? ROAx\Australia, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> Standard 1910 SARx\SouthAfrica, Some VACx Brakes Remain 2017
> Standard 1893 AARx\NorthAmerica, All VACx Converted To AIRx 1898
MAKERS
> AlfaUnion
> Bozic
> DaKo
> Faiveley
> Gessman
> IndiaRailAirBrake\IRAB
> Knorr\NewYorkAirBrake\NYAB
> Mitsubishi
> Oerlikon + D&M = FD IndeBrake + FV AutoBrake
> Schaltbau
> Secheron
> WestinghouseAirBrake\West
> Xian\ChinaLoco
SUBTYPES
Brak.AIRInde
> Evolved From 1868 West "NonFailSafe StraitAir" Brakes, AlsoKnownAs Inde\Loko\Strait Brake
> Used On Loks+Tenders+DMUs+EMUs, Not On Wags
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With Much Improved Response & Reliability
Brak.AIRAuto
> Evolved From 1872 West "FailSafe AIRAuto" Brakes, AlsoKnownAs Auto\Train Brake
> Used On Loks+Tenders+Wags+DMUs+EMUs
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With Much Improved Response & Reliability
Brak.AIRElec
> Evolved From 1904 West "AMUE ElecPneu" Brakes+07PinLine, AlsoKnownAs EP\ECP Brake
> Used On DMUs+EMUs+UnitPsgrWags+UnitFrhtWags, Not On Loks\Tenders\LegacyWags
> Modern Versions Function Simularly, With 03PinLine & Also Controls DistributedPower\Loks
Brak.AIRTail
> Replaced The Caboose\WayCar+Conductor+BrakeMan, AlsoKnownAs EOTD+HOTD or FRED+WILMA
> EndOfTrainDevice\EOTD\FRED On LastCar TailEnd Monitors+Transceives Distance+Speed+Pressure
> HeadOfTrainDevice\HOTD\WILMA In LeadCab Transceives LastCar Pressure Per Cab Brake Command
> Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Nfo Vid Vid Vid Vid

EMFx

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ALSO KNOWN AS
> ElecMotivForce\Dynamic\Hybrid\Regen\Rheostat\Resistor Brakes
DEVELOPMENT & USAGE
> 1939~???? First Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks
> Typical On Modern DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs
> ElecMotivForce Generated By Coasting TrakMotors Switched To Resistor\Battery\3RLE\OHLE
> ElecMotivForce Fades As Speed Drops To Zero, So EMFx Brakes Alone WONT Fully Stop Train
> If EMFx Brakes Fail, AIRx Brakes Are Used
ENHANCEMENTS
> Blending
> Brake Controls Reduce Wear + Improve Handling
MAKERS
> ABB
> AlfaUnion
> ATS
> DaulatRam
> DaytonPhoenix
> Filnor
> Mosebach
> NRE
> Ohmic
SUBTYPES
Brak.EMFDynamic
> Converts BrakingForce To DissipatedHeat Via OnBoard Resistors+Blowers
> Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling
Brak.EMFHybrid
> Converts BrakingForce To AuxiliaryPower Via OnBoard Chargers+Batteries
> Used On DselLoks+ElecLoks+DMUs+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling+EnergyEfficiency
Brak.EMFRegen
> Converts BrakingForce To RegenPower Via 3RLE.Shoes\OHLE.Pants
> Used On ElecLoks+EMUs, Improves Braking+Handling+EnergyEfficiency