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RailCar Brakes of the most common type are Listed\Described\Depicted below, as used worldwide on Legacy\Modern railways. Brake types of Compatible\Like design often are known by different Make\Brand\Regional\Nick names.

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MANx Brakes

ALSO KNOWN AS:
> Manual Brakes
> Hand Brakes
OPERATION:
> CarMounted HandCranks MechaniclyLinked To WheelMounted BrakeShoes
> Requires BrakeMen Moving Car~Car Adjusting Cranks To Apply\Release Brakes
> Commonly Used As Running Brake Befor 1893, Practice PhasedOut Due To Injury+Wrecks
> Restricted By OperatingRules\Law To Use As Parking Brake Only After 1933
DEVELOPMENTS:
> 1893\SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
MANUFACTURERS:
> Ajax
> Amsted\Faively\Ellcon
> GrahamWhite
> Peacock
InfoLink

VACx Brakes

ALSO KNOWN AS:
> Vacuum Brakes
> NegativePressure Brakes
OPERATION:
> If Coupler\Pipe Breaks, VACx Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
> Strength Limited By AtmosphericPressure, Severely Weakens With Altitude
DEVELOPMENTS:
> 1844 Nasymyth+May\Brit
> 1860 N.Hodge\USMA
> 1872 J.Smith\USPA
> 1874 F.Eames\USNY
STANDARDS:
> Britain\BR
> Australia\ROA
> India\RDS
> SouthAfrica\SAR
MANUFACTURERS:
> EamesVacuumBrake\USNY
> Gresham&Craven\Brit
APPLICATIONS:
> Used On Some American Stock 1860~1892, Replaced By AIRx Brakes, Banned After 1900
> Standard On BritishRail+Colonial Stock Before 1978, Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> Standard On AustraliaRail Stock 1885~19??, Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> Standard On IndiaRail Stock Before 1980, Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> Standard On JapanRail Stock Before 1925, Replaced By AIRx Brakes
> Standard On SouthAfricaRail Stock Before 19??, Replaced By AIRx Brakes
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink

AIRx Brakes

ALSO KNOWN AS:
> Air Brakes
> PositivePressure Brakes
> Westinghouse Brakes
OPERATION:
> If Coupler\Pipe\Line Breaks, AIRx Brakes AutoApply In Emergency\FailSafe Mode
DEVELOPMENTS:
> 1848 S.Lister\Brit
> 1868~1914 Westinghouse\USPA
> 1893 SafetyApplianceAct\USDC
ENHANCEMENTS:
> TripleValve\DistributorValve
> GladHand
> DualReservoir DualReservoir
> ElectroPneumatic\ElectroControlPneumatic\TrainLine
> TwinPipe
> BrakeBlending BrakeBlending
> EOTDevice
STANDARDS:
> America\AAR Standardized AIRx Brakes 1893, Banned VACx Brakes 1900
> Britain\BR Began Using AIRx Brakes 1962, Standardized 1978, Some VACx Brakes Remain As Of 2017
> China\CRC Standardized AIRx Brakes 19??
> Euro\UIC Standardized AIRx Brakes 19??
> Indi.RDS Began Converting VACx To AIRx Brakes In 1980, Some VACx Brakes Remain As Of 2017
> Japan\JR Standardized AIRx Brakes 1925, Banned VACx Brakes 19??
> Russia\GOSt Standardized AIRx Brakes 19??
> Australia\ROA Began Converting VACx To AIRx Brakes In 19??, Some VACx Brakes Remain As Of 2017
> SouthAfrica\SAR Began Converting VACx To AIRx Brakes In 19??, Some VACx Brakes Remain As Of 2017
MANUFACTURERS:
> Bozic
> DaKo
> Gessman
> IndiaRailAirBrake\IRAB
> Knorr\NewYorkAirBrake\NYAB
> Mitsubishi
> Oerlikon
> Schaltbau
> Secheron
> WestinghouseAirBrake\WABCo
> Xian\ChinaLoco
SUBTYPES:
> AIRA=AirAutomatic Brakes Are Used On All Stock: DMUs+EMUs+Locs+Tenders+Wags...
AIRA Brakes Evolved From The 1872 WABCo "FailSafe AutoAir" Brake & BrakePipe
AIRA Brakes Of Today Function Much The Same Though Much Improved
> AIRI=AirIndependent\Strait Brakes Are Used On DMUs+EMUs+Locs+Tenders Only
AIRI Brakes Evolved From The 1868 WABCo "NonFailSafe StraitAir" Loco+Tender Brake
AIRI Brakes Of Today Function Much The Same Though Much Improved
> AIRE=AirElectric\EP\ECP Brakes Are Used On DMUs+EMUs+UnitFrht Trains
AIRE Brakes Evolved From The 1904 WABCo.AMUE "ElecPneumatic" Brake & 7WireLine
AIRE Brakes Of Today Control Both Brakes+Power In A Train Via Multiplexed 3WireLine
InfoLink InfoLink InfoLink
APPLICATIONS:
> 1872~1905 Steam Locs With WABCo.A\B\C\D\F\G\H\K
> 1904~1947 ElectricMotorUnits\EMUs With WABCo.AMUE
> 1906+Later Steam Locs With WABCo.6ET
> 1925~1944 Diesel+Electric Locs With WABCo.6SL\7EL\8EL\14EL
> 1945~1956 Diesel+Electric Locs With WABCo.24RL
> 1948+Later ElectricMotorUnits\EMUs With WABCo.SMEE
> 1957~1992 Diesel+Electric Locs With Knorr\WABCo.26L
> 1993+Later Diesel+Electric Locs With Knorr.CCB\EBV Or WABCo.EPIC

EMFx Brakes

ALSO KNOWN AS:
> ElectroMotiveForce Brakes
> Dynamic Brakes
> Hybrid Brakes
> Regen Brakes
> Rheostat Brakes
> Resistive Brakes
OPERATION:
> If EMFx Brakes Fail, AIRx Brakes Are Used
> Back EMF Generated By Coasting TracMotors Is Switched To Resistors\Batteries\3RLE\OHLE
> Back EMF Fades As Speed Drops To 0, So EMFx Brakes Alone Can NOT Fully Stop A Train
> Modern Controls Blend EMFx & AIRx Brakes To Reduce Wear & Improve Handling
ENHANCEMENTS:
> BrakeBlending
> BrakeBlending
MANUFACTURERS:
> ABB\Euro
> Daulat\Indi
> DaytonPhoenix\USOH
> Mosebach\USPA
> NRE\USIL
SUBTYPES:
> EMFD=Dynamic Brakes Connect To Resistors+Blowers & Disipate Power As Heat
EMFD Brakes On Diesel+ElectricLocs Improve Braking + Handling\Safety
> EMFH=Hybrid Brakes Connect To Batteries & Typically Power OnBoard Auxiliary Equipment
EMFH Brakes On DMUs+EMUs Typically Power Passenger Lights+Convenience+Service Equipment
> EMFR=Regen Brakes Connect To Shoes\Pantographs & Regenerate 3RLE\OHLE Power
EMFR Brakes On EMUs+ElectricLocs Improve Braking + Handling + TracMotor Efficiency
APPLICATIONS:
> 1939 First Used On Diesel+Electric Locs
> Used WorldWide On DMUs+EMUs+Locs

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